The question of how to regulate the proliferation of harmful online content is one that tends to polarise opinion. There are those who see online platforms as the cause of all evil online and call for platforms to be regulated as if they were news publishers. And at the other end of the spectrum are those who believe that regulating internet platforms would stifle free speech and innovation.

But some form of consensus is starting to emerge in the middle. Free speech arguments have been dampened in the face of seriously harmful content that cannot be defended and regulators have started to listen to the tech industry to focus on practical and technological solutions rather than trying to apportion blame.

On a global level, the law remains fragmented, behind, and in some cases unfit for purpose. But the tech industry is under huge media, political and consumer pressure to innovate to get ahead of the law and solve the worst of online problems. This has led to collaboration between industry and regulators and the emergence of a legal regime based on codes of conduct and what some are starting to call a "duty of care" on the gatekeepers of the internet.